Examples:

**CALCULATING TEMPERATURE RAISE**

Instead of applying the more commonly used formulas, the component is divided into small parts and for each part**(or node)**, the balance of the thermal exchanges is calculated. The coefficients of heat exchange by convection, in particular, are the result of much experimentation. The calculation of the temperature raise of each node is obtained by successive approximations through the resolution of a system of linear equations. In this way the calculation is accurate even when cooling ducts are only on the front, or only on the side, and when the winding is in contact with the core.**CALCULATING IMPENDANCE VOLTAGE**

When calculating impedance voltage, instead of using traditional formulas for cylindrical coils, we divide the coil into front and side parts, we then calculate the leakage flux of each part, layer by layer. The calculation is made by using the actual stray flux, so that the impedance voltage will be correct even if coil forms are very different from the standard.**CALCULATING NO-LOAD LOSSES**

No-load losses are calculated starting from the theoretical specific losses provided by magnetic steel manufacturers for each grade of magnetic material, and by applying experience values of building factors. In the personalization phase, other types of magnetic sheets and values of building factors can be implemented.

© Daniela Zanini E.S.C. 2015 - "Photo by Massimo Allegri"